Posted on

does cbd reduce fever

Does cbd reduce fever

Typically, somebody running a fever will also be aware of physical symptoms. As you can imagine, a fever often leaves somebody feeling hot and flushed. The forehead is also invariably warm when somebody is running a fever. The best way to test this is to touch the forehead with the back of the hand.

What is a Fever?

It’s worth keeping a digital thermometer in a home first aid kit to measure temperature in the event of fever. A digital temperature gauge tends to be a little more accurate than old-fashioned glass-and-mercury models. It’s also safer, especially if you live with pets or children. You can pick up a digital thermometer from most high street pharmacies without breaking the bank.

What causes a Fever?

How you react to running a fever depends on the root cause. As we’ll discuss now, while it may be tempting to seek in-person advice from a medical professional, this may not always be the most socially responsible decision.

Medical cannabis (MC) is helpful for a wide spectrum of syndromes, including chronic pain syndromes [7]. Its use in Israel requires a special license issued by the Israeli Medical Cannabis Agency (IMCA) in the Ministry of Health, or by physicians approved by the IMCA for this purpose. Other than chronic pain syndromes, it is also indicated by the IMCA for a variety of resistant neuropathies, seizures, and inflammatory diseases like Crohn’s [8]. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the effect of cannabis use in FMF patients. Here, we report 2 cases of resistant FMF patients who reported remarkable improvement with MC treatment.

MC is becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of different diseases, especially resistant ones such as convulsions, Parkinson’s disease, and chronic pain syndromes [9–11]. There are more than 100 phytocannabinoids, but the main active compounds are THC and CBD [12]. THC has psychoactive, anti-pain, and anti-emetic properties. CBD is free of psychoactive properties but has strong anti-pain, anti-inflammatory, and spasmolytic properties. These compounds act mainly through the CB1 receptors, which are located primarily in the central nervous system (CNS), and CB2, which is located in different organs, especially those related to the immune system, such as the spleen and lymph nodes [13]. The activation of these receptors is eventually translated into distinct intracellular signaling pathways through coupling to specific intracellular effector proteins [14]. The human body itself has also its own cannabinoids, called endocannabinoids (15). In vitro studies in humans have shown that CBD results in the reduction of IL-1β levels in mitogen-activated human peripheral blood monocytes, in addition to other cytokines [16]. Clinically, a prospective, placebo-controlled trial showed that cannabis induced clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease, which is an inflammatory disease [8].

FMF management is based on the various available drugs. Management of acute attacks is mainly by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other supportive treatment.

Case Report

The pathogenesis of FMF is still not fully defined. It is hypothesized that a mutation in the MEFV gene results in abnormal production of pyrin, a type of protein that that has been widely investigated in recent years. Normally, it has an inhibitory effect on IL-Iβ processing [16]. Pyrin affects IL-1β and is believed to recruit white blood cells to the serosal areas participating in the inflammatory process [18]. Colchicine is believed to act through stabilizing inflammatory cells and preventing the release of the inflammatory contents [19]. Biologic treatments like anakinra and canakinumab block IL-1β and neutralize its effect [20]. Therefore, the beneficial effect of MC on the symptoms/signs of FMF is at least through its inhibitory effect on IL-1β, in addition to its central effect in the CNS. This favorable effect was manifested in our study by attenuation in the severity of attacks and decreasing their frequency. More studies are needed on this issue.

Cannabis is a therapeutic option for treating the most complex patients with FMF.

Discussion

MC treatment was approved by the IMCA by smoking, using 2 species (products of IMC Agriculture MC Growing Company, Israel). The first, Ella (60% Sativa+40% Indica), contains 10% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)+2% cannabidiol (CBD) for daytime use, and the second species, Roma (60% Indica+40% Sativa), contains 20% THC+4% CBD for evening use. Under this treatment, the patient reported remarkable improvement in the severity of the attacks and quality of life, including decreased abdominal, joint, and chest pain, as well as a temperature below 38°C. During these attacks, he could move around in and outside his home without the need for bed-rest. The patient consumed 20 g of MC per month and denied any adverse effects of this treatment. Eventually, the patient gave up the request for biologic treatment and requested to use MC treatment only.

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a common hereditary disease in the Middle East [1]. Classically, patients with FMF have recurrent attacks of serositis, including pleuritic chest pain, abdominal pain, and high fever. Articular involvement can also occur. These attacks usually occur every few weeks to months and last 1–4 days, significantly affecting quality of life [2].