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cbd weed without thc

Cbd weed without thc

Medicinal cannabis is increasingly being used in the clinical setting [18,19,20,21]. However, contrasting views on the long- and short-term impacts on patient health, following the sustained use of ∆ 9 -THC cannabis, persist. There is no doubt that recreational use is associated with substantial adverse health effects. Still, the burden of disease stemming from the recreational use of cannabis is much lower than other commonly used legal and illicit substances [22]. Reports of brain damage and cognitive dysfunction [23] are contrasted by clinical studies that show improved cognitive function with the controlled use of ∆ 9 -THC cannabis [24]. Furthermore, ∆ 9 -THC and synthetic cannabinoids (sCB) (discussed in Section 2), protected normal rat astrocytes from induced cell death post exposure to ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine cell-permeable analogue; see Section 3.4.1), via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases –PI3K/protein kinase B–Akt/p90 ribosomal S6 kinase–RSK, survival signalling pathways [25]. Conversely, Lenzi et al. showed that sCBs have mutagenic capabilities in healthy human lymphoblasts and can cause chromosomal damage at the concentration range of 25 to 50 µM [26]. Koller et al. also demonstrated that sCBs can cause DNA damage in human lymphocytes [27].

There is unanimous support to encourage harm minimisation approaches in order to decrease medicinal or recreational cannabis use while pregnant or postpartum [28]. For example, ∆ 9 -THC containing cannabis use is negatively correlated with foetal birth weight (up to a 450 g reduction) [29], and the development of neurotransmission systems, with the endocannabinoid system playing a number of important roles in brain development. Although the evidences so far are ambiguous, it is unsurprising that prenatal exposure to cannabis may have neurocognitive consequences, including affective mental disorders (anxiety and depression), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (reviewed in [30]), which are also common occurrences in the adult life of long-term ∆ 9 -THC cannabis users (reviewed in [31]). Interestingly, CBD elicits different neurocognitive activity compared with that of ∆ 9 -THC [32]. In some cases however, CBD can induce somnolence and fatigue [33], akin to the use of ∆ 9 -THC. CBD also has the ability to cross the placenta and to reach breast-milk, further highlighting the need to abstain while pregnant or when postpartum [33]. Due to the risk of accumulation, CBD dose adjustment is required in patients with hepatic impairment [34]. CBD may cause hepatotoxicity, as mouse modelling showed that an acute dose of 2460 mg/kg (24 hr), or a sub-acute dose of 615 mg/kg (10 days), increased markers of liver damage, including liver-to-body weight ratios, plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme levels, and total bilirubin after 3–4 days of treatment [35]. Furthermore, there is currently limited evidence regarding the long-term safety and cognitive consequences of the sustained consumption of CBD, either in the recreational or medicinal setting [36].

Effects of Cannabis on Human Health

2 Priority Research Centre for Cancer Research, Innovation & Translation, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, NSW 2305, Australia; [email protected]

2 Priority Research Centre for Cancer Research, Innovation & Translation, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, NSW 2305, Australia; [email protected]

1. Introduction

Consistent lines of evidence show that cannabinoids play a role in modulating neural and immune functions, both centrally and peripherally, via the classical CB1R and CB2R mediated receptor routes, particularly for ∆ 9 -THC, while CBD is more commonly reported to function as a ligand for other GPCRs (including GPR55, GPR3, GPR6, GPR12, TRPVs and PPAR-γ). While the exact mechanistic basis remains unclear, there appears to be significant crosstalk between the molecular targets of cannabinoid responsive pathways, targets which could ultimately determine downstream proliferation or anti-tumour responses. If this was not complicated enough; the use of cannabis plant extracts, which are generally highly complex mixtures of cannabinoids, terpenoids and other bioactive natural products, makes identification of the anti-cancer benefits even more challenging. That being said, studies generally show that pure CBD is superior to CBD-rich extracts and other plant cannabinoids (CBG, CBC) for inhibition of tumour cell growth and survival, and without any cytotoxic effect on healthy cells, at the doses reported (IC50: 6–10 µM/1.9–3.1 mg/L) [139]. While the application of low-THC cannabis extracts may prove beneficial as an alternate cancer treatment in the future, owing to the potential cooperative nature of its diverse chemical components (entourage effect), conversely, it could also undermine efficacy and foster the development of drug resistance to established chemotherapeutic protocols. More data is still urgently needed to establish the ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ of using whole cannabis extracts, or isolated cannabinoids, before its application in clinical trial settings.

Cbd weed without thc

After Charlotte’s story got out, hundreds of families relocated to Colorado where they could procure CBD for their children, though not all experienced such life-changing results. Instead of moving, other families obtained CBD oil through the illegal distribution networks.

In early May, a federal court declined to protect cannabidiol (CBD), a chemical produced by the cannabis plant, from federal law enforcement, despite widespread belief in its medical value.

While studies have shown CBD to have anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-psychotic properties, it has seen only minimal testing in human clinical trials, where scientists determine what a drug does, how much patients should take, its side effects and so on.

CBD first came to public attention in a 2013 CNN documentary called Weed. The piece, reported by Dr Sanjay Gupta, featured a little girl in Colorado named Charlotte, who had a rare life-threatening form of epilepsy called Dravet syndrome.

The first thing to know about CBD is that it is not psychoactive; it doesn’t get people high. The primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). But THC is only one of the scores of chemicals – known as cannabinoids – produced by the cannabis plant.

The perception of its widespread medical benefits have made the chemical a rallying cry for legalization advocates.

The ruling was contrary to existing evidence, which suggests the chemical is safe and could have multiple important uses as medicine. Many cannabis advocates consider it a miracle medicine, capable of relieving conditions as disparate as depression, arthritis and diabetes.

At age five, Charlotte suffered 300 grand mal seizures a week, and was constantly on the brink of a medical emergency. Through online research, Charlotte’s desperate parents heard of treating Dravet with CBD. It was controversial to pursue medical marijuana for such a young patient, but when they gave Charlotte oil extracted from high-CBD cannabis, her seizures stopped almost completely. In honor of her progress, high-CBD cannabis is sometimes known as Charlotte’s Web.