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c02 cbd extraction

C02 cbd extraction

Yield data is often gathered as it can be helpful in establishing a baseline for a financial model, determining ROI, etc. However, the yield of any extraction process depends upon the quality of the original source material. The cannabinoid content of different strains of cannabis varies greatly, not just between indica and sativa, but within each category there are unique cannabinoid profiles. Generally plants are bred specifically to produce high levels of THC or to be CBD dominant but of course there are many hybrids as well. The amount of total THC extracted compared to the amount present in the feedstock provides the best measure of extraction efficiency.

Supercritical CO2 extraction involves using controlled temperature and pressure to create phase (or state of matter) changes in CO2 (carbon dioxide) for the purpose of extracting cannabis plant material while maintaining the integrity and amounts of terpenes found in the plant material. At the same time, it protects cannabinoids from decarboxylation during the extraction process. The phase changes (for example, from gas to liquid) in CO2 allow you to separate out plant material of different weights during the extraction process.

Frequently used in commercial cannabis extraction labs, CO2 is a “ tunable solvent ” (meaning its solvation strength can be tuned incrementally by making slight adjustments to the density of the CO2 supercritical fluid). Supercritical CO2 extraction is hands down the safest and cleanest method of commercially extracting cannabis oil from your plants and it can be used to create a variety of end products.

Cannabis plants are made up of a complex combination of chemical compounds that dictate the effects, taste and smell of the flowers. In their whole form, cannabis flowers are made up of hundreds of cannabinoids, terpenes and other molecules. Without thorough training in organic chemistry many extractors don’t completely understand the intricate processes involved in creating a quality extract. Therefore they mistakenly continue to refine and purify their extracts to remove contaminants. Extract that is 95% pure THC means that the extractor essentially diminished much of the medicine of the whole plant. You might say that vaporizing extract that is 95% pure THC is the equivalent of eating processed food as opposed to drinking cold pressed juice.

Measuring Effectiveness of the Extraction Process

Full spectrum extracts provide a more comprehensive experience in terms of flavor and effects. These extracts take much more sophisticated technology and expertise to produce and will be highly valued moving forward. For full-spectrum extracts you would compare the THC, cannabinoid and terpene profiles of the feedstock with the extract not only for efficiency but also the balance in chemical makeup.

Another advantage of supercritical CO2 extraction is the fact that it enables you to separate individual compounds during the extraction process. Large-scale commercial plants using supercritical CO2 extraction are also commonly found in the food industries. Fun fact: Coffee decaffeination uses supercritical CO2 extraction equipment to separate caffeine from coffee.

In this state, supercritical fluids (SCFs) possess densities like liquids, viscosities like gas and diffusities somewhere in between that of a liquid and a gas. In other words, supercritical CO2 expands to fill its container like it would if it were in the form of a gas, but with the density of a liquid. This CO2 supercritical fluid is used to remove essential oils from cannabis plants (or any other plants for that matter) without leaving any residues behind. Supercritical CO2 is cleaner and greener than many other solvents so it’s better for both the consumer and our planet. This is a reason that socially-conscious cannabis extractors choose to use CO2 supercritical fluid.

What Is Supercritical CO2 Extraction?

There are many pros to using CO2 as a solvent in the cannabis extraction process.

Supercritical CO2 extraction is currently the “gold standard” of cannabis extraction methods because it’s cleaner, more efficient and safer than other methods of extraction. Butane extraction, for example, can leave traces of heavy metals. By comparison, supercritical CO2 extraction yields cannabis oils, waxes and rosins with the highest purity level and no residual solvents. In addition, even though CO 2 is a greenhouse gas (a contributor to global warming), when it is removed from the environment, used in an extraction process, and expelled back into the environment, it does not result in any increase in greenhouse gas emissions.

C02 cbd extraction

CO2 typically behaves like a gas at standard pressure and temperature. And it is easily changed to a solid while in this state. The solid version of the gas is known as dry ice. Using the aforementioned equipment in a lab, you can turn CO2 gas into a liquid by ensuring the temperature drops below -69 degrees Fahrenheit while increasing the pressure to over 75 pounds per square inch (psi). At this stage, you have your starting point for CO2 cannabis extraction. Next, you will follow one of the three steps described below.

Is it a safe extraction method…

The first step in olive oil extraction, which can be performed at home, involves ensuring the raw plant material is decarboxylated. In layman’s terms, it means you have to heat the plant to a certain temperature for a specific length of time to activate the plant’s chemicals.

Liquid CO2

Pros and Cons of the Olive Oil Extraction Method

A study published in Current Pharmaceutical Design suggested that CBD had a similar effect to certain antipsychotic drugs. Further studies showed that CBD could have a positive impact when used on people with neurological disorders. It also has potential anti-seizure properties and is used by individuals with epilepsy.

CO2 & Extraction

Pros and Cons of the Dry Ice Extraction Method

Mid-critical is simply a general range between subcritical and supercritical. Some companies combine supercritical and subcritical to create a full-spectrum CO2 cannabis extract. They use the subcritical extraction method to separate the drawn-out oil and the very same plant material using supercritical pressure. The oils are then homogenized into one, which creates an amalgamated oil. This is known as the CO2 Total Extraction Process.

C02 cbd extraction

Clean and efficient, CO2 extraction is only used by professionals, as the technical knowledge needed to operate the equipment (not to mention the expense of getting your hands on it) keeps amateurs and hobbyists away.

Far from inexpensive, the equipment needed to extract CBD with CO2 is highly technical machinery that often is separated into three distinct chambers. As expected, each chamber has its own specialized task:

When using the supercritical CO2 extraction method, the liquid CO2 is pushed to the point of becoming a property that is halfway between a gas and a liquid. Known as a “supercritical” state, the CO2 now functions as both a gas and a liquid, making it ideal for chemical extraction because it doesn’t denature or damage the substance. For CBD products, which are either consumed by ingestion or absorption, making sure that the hemp oil is as safe and pure as possible, without losing any of the critical components that make it effective, is key. When done properly, CO2 extraction pulls out all of the essential trichomes and terpene oils, ensuring that the products you buy really deliver the benefits you’re looking for.

Pros of CO2 Extraction

Like anything, CO2 extraction isn’t perfect. While a popular and safe choice, there are some downsides to the process that should be considered, whether you’re a consumer or a CBD business owner. First, however, let’s focus on why CO2 really is one of the best extraction methods being used today, especially for CBD products.

What’s most important to remember is that, even when dealing with the exact same hemp strain, the extraction method utilized to create the oil can produce very distinct results. Even at a chemical level, you can tell which method has been used to create a specific CBD product – and that can make the difference between you getting the results you want and feeling like you’ve wasted your money.

The Pros and Cons of the CO2 Extraction Method

There are, of course, a few reasons why CO2 extraction isn’t the right method for everyone. Below are a few of the cons to consider…

One of the most trusted ways to extract CBD from cannabis or hemp, the CO2 extraction method is categorized into three different types: supercritical, subcritical and mid-critical. Most professional and reputable companies use the CO2 extraction method simply because it’s the safest way to create the purest product.